What is Anemia? Prevalence of Anemia in Pakistan

Created on: May 18, 2018

What is Anemia?

Our blood is made up with solid and liquid. Liquid part which is also called Plasma, is further made up with salts, water and Protein. Red cells are responsible to port the oxygen to different part of the human body. The solid part is made up with three major components, Red blood cells (also called Hemoglobin ), white blood cells and platelets. The normal ratio of hemoglobin or red cells is 13.5 to 17.5 and in women 12.5 15.5 grams per deciliter. Les count of red cells or abnormal hemoglobin will not port required level of oxygen into your body. This will ends up with Anemia and patient will feel fatigue because the organs of his body is not getting what they need and they will not function properly. Young children, Womens and the persons who have chronic diseases could have Anemia.

The most common causes of anemia are: the infants could have this disease from the time of birth. A women could have lost blood because menstruation or during pragnancy. Adults are also at risk of anemia due to poor medication and diet.

There are various types of anemia. All the types are different from each other in term of their causes and treatments. The most common type of anemia is Iron deficiency and can be cured proper diet and iron suppliments. Some types of anemia could create lifelong health problems whereas some types like mild whic could develop in women during pragnancy could be considered as normal.

Prevalence of Anemia in Pakistan

In 1990 prevalence of anemia in Pakistan among women in reproductive age (age of 15 - 49) was 53.60 whereas it was 48.80 in 2001 and it was 52.10 in 2016. Among children Prevalence of anemia in Pakistan was 70.80 in 1990 and 58.80 in 2016 and the lowest value was in 2006 which was 56.30.

Global Prevalence of Anemia

An estimated figure of affected people of anemia is around 1620 million. According to National Nutrition Survey 2011 51% pregnant women 50.5% chlid bearing aged women and 62.1% childrens are affected by anemia.


  • Weakness, fatigue
  • Pica
  • Loss of appetite, anorexia
  • Decreased work performance
  • Bruising
  • Dizziness
  • Hypoxia (shortness of breath)
  • Skin: Pale
  • Eyelid: Inside lower eyelid light pink
  • Fingernails: thin , flat eventually koilonychia

Causes of Anemia

Anemia have around 400 types and are further grouped into three groups

  • Caused by blood loss
  • Caused by less count or abnormal blood cell production
  • Caused by destruction of red blood cells

Anemia Caused by Blood Loss

Loss of red blood cells due to various reason, Women losses blood during menstruation or pragnancy, blood loss with undetected wound could bleed for long time and person could loss blood. A person could lost heavy amount of blood due to arterial type of bleeding.

Caused by less count or abnormal blood cell production

In this type of anemia, if the persons health is not good and his body may not produces enough amount of red blood cells or person's red blood are not functioning properly. In either condition the person is at hight risk of anemia. Iron-deficiency, Vitamin deficiencyanemia, Bone marrow and stem cell problems, Sickle cell anemia and Other health conditions are the most common conditions of anemia.

Caused by destruction of red blood cells

Blood red cells may rupture prematurely if they are fragile or can't withstand in circulatory system. This condition is called hemoclytic anemia. This can be in infants and young boys are also on risk.

Blood donors from Pakistan are highly encouraged to step forward and donate blood for Anemia and other needy persons.